PASA Member Wildlife Centers
Ape Action Africa (Cameroon)
Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage (Zambia)
Chimp Eden (South Africa)
The Jane Goodall Institute
Chimpanzee Conservation Center (Guinea)
Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Project (Gambia)
Colobus Conservation (Kenya)
Drill Ranch (Nigeria)
Fernan-Vaz Gorilla Project (Gabon)
HELP Congo (Congo)
J.A.C.K. (Jeunes Animaux Confisques au Katanga) (D.R. Congo)
Lilongwe Wildlife Centre (Malawi)
Limbe Wildlife Centre (Cameroon)
Lola ya Bonobo (D.R. Congo)
Lwiro Primate Rehabilitation Centre (D.R. Congo)
Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary (Uganda)
Parc de la Lékédi (Gabon)
Projet Protection des Gorilles – Congo (PPG) (Congo)
Projet Protection des Gorilles – Gabon (PPG) (Gabon)
Sanaga-Yong Chimpanzee Rescue (IDA Africa) (Cameroon)
Sweetwaters Chimpanzee Sanctuary (Kenya)
Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary (Sierra Leone)
Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Centre (Congo)
Vervet Monkey Foundation (South Africa)
Cardiff Metropolitan University
Gorilla Doctors/Wildlife Health Center University of California, Davis
Robert Koch Institute, Berlin Germany
Mvog Betsi Zoo
With Special Thanks to our Organizing Committee:
- Thalita Calvi, Veterinarian of Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage
- Mike Cranfield, Director of Gorilla Doctors and Veterinarian at UC Davis Karen C. Drayer Wildlife Health Center
- Luis Flores Giron, Veterinary Advisor of Lwiro Primate Rehabilitation Center
- George Omondi Paul, researcher at the University of Minnesota and former Head Veterinarian at Sweetwaters Chimpanzee Sanctuary
- Joshua Rukundo, Operations/Conservation Programs Director and senior veterinarian at Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary
- Dominic Travis, Associate Professor of Veterinary Population Medicine, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine
- Gregg Tully, Executive Director of PASA
- Steve Unwin, Lecturer at Liverpool University, OVAG program lead, wildlife health consultant for Wildlife Impact, and former Veterinary Officer at Chester Zoo
For each of the following presentations there is a video of the slide presentation and the option to download the presentation in pdf format.
Introduction: Global Paradigms
Title: Global One Health Systems
Authors: Dominic Travis
Abstract: This presentation explores how global one health systems can benefit PASA in providing new solutions for complexity and “wicked” problems. The opportunity for success with the implementation of a one health approach at PASA is rooted in PASA as a wildlife interface with non-human primates. A one health systems approach will allow for capacity building, community engagement and education, teamwork, and sharing mechanisms for success while achieving the goals PASA is striving for as well.
Title: Systems Based Approach to Health
Authors: Dominic Travis
Abstract: Evidence based medicine is the process of making and executing decisions using hard evidence, ultimately resulting in improved clinical decisions and preventative medical action. This process allows for efficient and effective resource allocation. Through risk assessment methods, a higher cost-benefit ratio can be achieved, which is hugely important in the case of reduced resources or infrastructure constraints.
Title: Risk Analysis
Authors: Dominic Travis
Abstract: Risk based analysis and prevention programs can result in more effectively and efficiently allocated resources through setting testing priorities and augmenting clinical investigative diagnostics. This presentation touches on hazard analysis and critical control points in different management systems and processes. This risk analysis method can be applied to PASA and one health policies, specifically with the transmission of disease at the human-wildlife interface.
Title: A Preventative Health Program
Authors: Steve Unwin, Steph Sanderson, Dave Brunger, and PASA Group
Abstract: Preventative health programs are important in wildlife disease ecology and controlling the spread and transmission of disease when confiscating wildlife. Abiding by preventative medicine standards can control the spread of disease by preventing it from entering wildlife facilities, maintaining the health of animals already at that facility, preventing further disease spread to human and animal populations, and protecting the health of the facility staff. Record keeping and regular animal observation and knowledge of animal behavior are both very important parts of preventative medicine and maintaining a healthy population. Nutrition is also a largely important player in preventative medicine and all animals should be provided adequate and sufficient diets according to age, species, and sex. Animals with proper enrichment, enclosure design, and social structure and going to be healthier in general. Vaccination and routine health assessments are important medical procedures in ensuring that a population stays healthy and prevents further spread of disease if and when it is present.
Chapter 1: One Health and Policy
Title: An Introduction to One Health: Its Importance to Wildlife Confiscation, Disease Transmission and Biosecurity, Quarantine, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Disease Risk Analysis
Authors: Steve Unwin, Felicia Nutter, Kay Farmer, Dominic Travis, and ICUN DRA Group
Abstract: As interactions between humans and animals increase with the increasing human population, the concept of one health is more important in preventing and controlling the spread of disease between human and animal populations. This presentation covers one health as a concept and provides information on biosecurity and disease control that can best be applied when working and living with animal populations. Wild animal welfare is also increasingly a topic of great concern in Africa, so the 5 freedoms of animal welfare are applied here in addition to one health to ensure that the proper steps are being taken to provide excellent quality of life for both humans and the animals they work with. Using disease risk analysis, decisions about how to move forward with a diseased or potentially diseased population can be made despite uncertainty. Lastly, communication about disease transmission is largely important in keeping human populations calm and safe, especially when using a one health approach.
Title: Infectious Disease Control: Tuberculosis in Non-Human Primates
Authors: George Omondi Paul, University of Minnesota
The rationale for infectious disease control is outlined and discussed in this presentation through the use of historical data concerning captive and wild non-human primates and human populations at high risk for disease. The transmission, pathogenesis, diagnostics, surveillance, and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are described within this presentation. Sanctuaries are described as the perfect location for a tuberculosis outbreak, according to the author, which stresses the importance of limiting the transmission of this zoonotic disease.
Title: Outbreak of Tuberculosis in Jane Goodall Institute South Africa Chimp Eden
Authors: Jana Swart, Chimp Eden and Katja Koeppel, Chimp Eden
This presentation provides a concise examination of the Tuberculosis outbreak at Chimp Eden in South Africa. The author outlines routine tuberculosis surveillance during annual health checks, and the history of the first tuberculosis case at Chimp Eden detected during a health check. The affected chimpanzees were treated with Isoniazid and Rifabutien per veterinary directive and their progress was tracked using Quantiferon titers, according to the author.
Title: A Tuberculosis Study Case - Lymph Node Form - in a Juvenile Chimpanzee
Authors: Emeline Chanove, CCC
This presentation explores the symptoms, treatments, and transmission risks associated with non-human primate tuberculosis in a sanctuary setting. The presenter thoroughly outlines the case history of the affected Chimpanzee and how detection of tuberculosis was performed outside of routine health exams and tuberculosis checks. The transmission of tuberculosis and the concern for long-term exposure in the facility is touched upon as treatment options and the conclusions of the case are discussed.
Title: The Orangutan Veterinary Advisory Group
Authors: Steve Unwin
Conservation is all about people. Projects that utilise local resources to integrate direct landscape protection and restoration will provide the biggest conservation impact by empowering the next generation of environmental conservation and wildlife welfare guardians.
This presentation introduces the OVAG family and highlighting qualitative and quantitative
evaluation methodologies employed to objectively assess the impact of OVAG’s welfare and
conservation efforts. OVAG is a capacity building and expertise network to improve conservation impact of the organisations participating. This consolidation of experts from a wide variety of organisations improves their individual impact. As a One Health programme, OVAG utilises the orangutan example to provide participants skills in ecosystem health. Participants have now or will have in the future direct input into conservation management at NGO level individually and Government level collectively. OVAG is the only consistent wildlife medicine and One Health programme for post graduates endorsed by the Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association, thus providing official professional development as required by Indonesian law.
Chapter 2: Epidemiology and Pathology
Title: Sanctuaries and Disease Surveillance: The Big Picture
Authors: Mike Cranfield, Gorilla Doctors
Abstract: The methods and ideologies of primate and biodiversity conservation at the interface between wild populations, zoo populations, and sanctuaries is discussed through the use of veterinary models of population growth in the Mountain Gorilla Population and examples of One Health at the human and wildlife interface. In collaboration with Gorilla Doctors, an attempt is being made to apply the model of success for a growing Mountain Gorilla population to the Eastern Lowland Gorilla population, whose numbers continue to dwindle. However, the interactions between non-human primates and humans during field treatments and observations leaves both the gorilla populations and humans at risk for disease exposure and transmission. Therefore, a one health approach to primate and biodiversity conservation can reduce pandemic risk and promote global health while treating both wild and captive populations.
Title: Safe Necropsy Protocols and Techniques, the Use of PPE, and the Basics of Proper Sample Collection and Archiving
Authors: Arianne Deux, RKI, Tobias Graessle, RKI, and Steve Unwin, Wildlife Impact
Abstract: Maintaining biosafety while performing field necropsies is hugely important in preventing exposure to and transmission of zoonotic diseases. This presentation outlines the basic principles of biosafety while performing a field necropsy and how to follow the White-Black-Principle. At the end of the necropsy, single use materials must be properly discarded and disinfectant should be used when applicable.
Title: Ape Brain Connectomics Project
Authors: Cathy Crockford and Steve Unwin
Abstract: This research is important in furthering the understanding of similarities and differences between human and non-human primate brains. Not only will this research shed light on the evolution and anatomy of the human brain, but it will challenge zoos and sanctuaries to improve animal welfare and enrichment programs while achieving research goals. Specifically, this research is geared towards understanding how the non-human primate brain changes according to social structure, vocalizations, and tool use capacity.
Chapter 3: Micro and ZEID
Title: Onsite Culture and Sensitivity to Fight Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics
Authors: Nicholas Banadzem, Sanaga Yong and Sheri Speede, Sanaga Yong
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance within a non-human primate sanctuary setting is presented as an ongoing issue that can be addressed with different treatments and cultures for pathogen resistance. This presentation provides insight into the methods used to monitor antibiotic resistance at the Sanaga-Yong Chimpanzee Rescue, as well as how this specific sanctuary monitors antibiotic sensitivities through bacterial cultures.
Chapter 4: Parasitology
Title: Investigating Faecal Parasites - An overview and Something New
Authors: Wendi Bailey and Steve Unwin
Abstract: This presentation provides a reintroduction of field basics in parasite diagnostics and identification, and the different methods for common parasite identification are discussed. Preparing faecal floats under various circumstances, such as lacking filters or electricity, is possible and innovative techniques can be applied to properly prepare the sample. Float solution recipes, such as zinc sulfate, Sheather’s sugar, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite are also provided alongside guidelines for when each solution should be used according to parasite species. Faecal cultures may also be performed alongside faecal floats, and various media such as charcoal and/or agar may be used. Parasites larvae and eggs may also be identified by size, mobility, and fluorescence microscopy.
Title: Sample Collection - Preservation and Diagnostics
Authors: Thomas Gillespie and Fabian Leendertz
Abstract: Biological materials from wild non-human primates can be collected non-invasively and analyzed according to its material type. Although there are drawbacks associated with collecting biological materials non-invasively, there are various non-invasive sampling methods available. If samples must be collected using an invasive method, it is important that all possible samples are collected within that time frame. This method minimizes procedural complications and limits exposure time. Lastly, all samples can be stored using biobanking techniques.
Title: Common Helminth Parasites of Gorillas and Chimpanzees
Authors: Thomas Gillespie
Abstract: This presentation provides crucial information on common Helminth parasites that affect both gorillas and chimpanzees. Identification parameters, such as larvae size and shape, egg size and shape, taxonomy, parasite life cycle, and symptoms seen in humans are provided for each parasite. The parasites discussed are Necator/Ancylostoma (Hookworms), Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides, and Mammomnogamus.
Title: Noninvasive Assessment of Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Free-Ranging Primates
Abstract: As the human population grows and expands there is increased risk for contact between human and non-human primates. With contact comes the spread of disease across species, putting the health of both groups at risk. Here, the author outlines practical ways in which disease transmission and emergence can be safely monitored using practical and logical noninvasive sample collection techniques specifically for gastrointestinal parasites.
Chapter 5: Clinical Applications
Title: The problems of surgical treatment of Tibia fractures in chimpanzees - case study of Bapu at JACK sanctuary
Authors: Jean Claude Binemo, JACK
Abstract: The surgical treatment of a tibial fracture is outlined in this presentation through the use of a case study. The case is that of an 11 year old female chimpanzee, Bapu, whose tibial fracture is closely followed and treated, beginning at the first observable clinical signs and ending with successful surgical treatment. This presentation examines the importance of proper surgical techniques and procedures in non-human primates to have continued clinical success in treating surgical cases.
Title: Contraception and Reproductive Pathology in Primates
Authors: Yedra Feltrer, Contraception Specialist
Abstract: This presentation introduces the chemical and surgical methods of contraception that can be used in non-human primates. Contraceptives may be indicated as a method of population control, inappropriate behavior modification, therapeutics, and animal welfare improvement, as described by the author. Treatment methods for the various reproductive disease states that can affect non-human primates are discussed as well. Lastly, the previous survey results regarding PASA’s contraception experience are presented and discussed.
Title: The International Primate Heart Project
Authors: Aimee Drane, Cardiff Metropolitan University
Abstract: Cardiac disease is a problem facing all great ape populations and the exact etiology is not known and each case is often multifactorial and difficult to distinguish. However, numerous tools exist that can be used to diagnose and manage cardiac disease, which are shown and discussed within this presentation. Diagnostic criteria for great apes are currently being established, but more work needs to be done for greater diagnostic and treatment success in sanctuary and zoo settings.
Title: Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary - Mystery Disease Investigations: Latest News
Authors: Andrea Pizarro, Tacugama
Abstract: A new bacterium has been found at the Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary that is believed to be the cause of neurological and gastrointestinal syndromes and eventual death. Only individuals within the forested enclosures have been affected and the syndromes are 100% lethal in affected individuals. Mitigation efforts, such as rodent control and strict management and husbandry policies, have lessened the incidence of the infection but have not lessened lethality. Analysis of the new bacterium ecology, studies of potential hosts and vectors, ICU unit for chimpanzees, and probiotics to protect against pathogenic bacteria are all steps that can be taken to improve disease treatment and prognosis.
Title: Acute Renal Failure - Causes, Treatment, and Prevention
Authors: Joshua Rukundo, Ngamba Island
Abstract: The clinical presentation of a chimpanzee with acute renal failure is described throughout this presentation. The chimpanzee’s disease progression, treatments, prognosis, and continued treatment/prevention are also described within this specific case study, and can potentially be applied to similar cases in other sanctuary settings. Acute renal failure is a disease that takes years to resolve, but can be successfully treated as exemplified within this case study.
Title: Floppy Infants - To Pull or Not to Pull? Intensive Respiratory Disease Management - Case Series
Authors: Thalita Calvi, Chimfunshi
Abstract: Respiratory disease is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in chimpanzees in both wild and captive populations. Clinical signs, as described within this presentation, can range from very mild respiratory distress to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Affected infants with repeated bronchiolitis might be predisposed to severe respiratory disease as adults, so the treatment and prevention of respiratory disease in infants and young chimpanzees is important in maintaining healthy chimpanzee populations within the sanctuary. This presentation outlines four different cases of respiratory disease in animals at the sanctuary and how each case presented clinically and was treated.
Title: Traumatic Brain Injury in a Vervet Monkey - A Case Report
Authors: Olutoye Adegboye, CRP
Abstract: This presentation follows the case of traumatic brain injury in a vervet monkey from diagnosis to treatment and recovery. The symptoms and clinical signs of traumatic brain injury are described in detail, as well as the diagnostics utilized in this specific case.
Title: The management of a large open surgical wound in a 2 year old vervet using a combined pharmaceutical and herbal treatment plan
Authors: Victoria Curr Smith, Vervet Monkey Foundation
Abstract: This presentation outlines the care and management of an open surgical wound following an amputation and recovery complications. Both holistic and clinical treatments were used to manage the open wound following tissue necrosis and debridement. Lastly, the author discusses why the different treatments worked in this specific case and why they might not work in other scenarios.
Chapter 6: Management - Nutrition
Title: Uncovering why an adult male gorilla fails to gain weight despite food supplementation
Authors: Nick Bachand, Fernan-Vaz
Abstract: An adult male gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla) that had recently been transferred to a new social group at a new sanctuary location was noted to have a decreased appetite and bruising on the palmar surfaces of the hands. The keepers changed his diet to have greater supplementation within financial allowances and keeper compliance (ease of feeding). The sanctuary keepers also changed the gorilla’s enrichment and environment, which improved his overall body condition and coat appearance. A medical examination revealed no systemic illness as the cause of the decreased appetite, and the increase in enrichment, group restructuring, and altered environment helped to minimize the animal’s stress. This presentation focuses on a case that is an ongoing assessment, but shows how keeper compliance, diet supplementation, and social/environmental surroundings play a role in animal stress and health.
Title: Group Management - Nutrition
Authors: Dominic Travis and Ainare Idoiaga
Abstract: This presentation discusses the basics of digestion and diet in non human primates according to the taxonomic classification. Both hindgut and foregut fermentation are discussed, as well as other feeding strategies according to a species-specific diet. Non human primate nutrition within a sanctuary setting can be a challenge, but the authors present the importance of proper nutrition as a preventative medicine strategy while simultaneously providing enrichment through natural foraging behaviors within a captive setting. Nutrition is species specific and should be applied differently by species in order to most effectively and efficiently provide nutrients to captive non human primate populations.
Chapter 7: Management - Ethics and Welfare
Title: Group Management - The Enclosure Design Tool: Applying wild chimpanzee behavioral ecology to improve welfare in sanctuary chimpanzees
Authors: Susannah Thorpe, Enclosure Instructor, Jackie Chappell, Enclosure Instructor, Johanna Neufuss, Enclosure Instructor, and Gery Wamba, Ape Action Africa
Abstract: The normal social, foraging, and nest building behaviors of wild chimpanzees are presented in regards to enclosure design and how these behaviors can be stimulated by well-designed enclosure spaces. Food competition is a major source of conflict in chimpanzee social groups, especially during introductions, so methods are discussed for how to reduce these negative interactions through environmental stimulation and group organization within sanctuary enclosures. The chimpanzees also benefit from proper enrichment sources and designs within the enclosure, and motivations for one behavior can be utilized to elicit other desired behaviors or to compensate for behaviors that cannot be performed according to enclosure space and design.
Title: Enclosure Design Tool: Data Collection and Analysis
Authors: Jackie Chappell
Abstract: The Enclosure Design Tool was developed to make small changes to non human primate enclosures that can result in improved animal welfare, encourage wild type behaviors, and improve physiotherapy within a sanctuary setting. After enclosure modifications were made, baseline and postline data was compared against wild chimpanzee behavior. Three behavioral categories were designated in data collection; locomotion and posture, manipulation/cognition, and social. These values were then compared to those of wild individuals to measure the success of the enclosure design tool in improving sanctuary animal welfare.
Title: Enclosure Design Tool: Ape Action Africa Case Study
Authors: Johanna Neufuss
Abstract: The Enclosure Design Tool (EDT) has been implemented at Ape Action Africa, a sanctuary for non-human primates such as gorillas, chimpanzees, baboons, and mandrills. Beginning with practicing the protocol in stage 1, the sanctuary team had to learn and understand the behavioral classifications and practice recording these behaviors with and without a timing device. Baseline data was then used to determine what materials should be purchased to make cage modifications according to both present and absent behaviors. These cage modifications were applied in the hopes of improving animal welfare and behavior at the sanctuary in addition to a new keeper feeding program to provide additional enrichment to the animals. The data from this case study can hopefully be applied and implemented at other sanctuaries in the future through the EDT.
Title: Group Management: Care of Infants
Authors: Rebeca Atencia, Tchimpounga
Abstract: The care of infant non-human primates in a sanctuary setting is often difficult and requires constant care and attention. This presentation outlines the three major steps in caring for an infant non-human primate with examples from specific cases as well as general common clinical signs and scenarios that would bring an infant into a sanctuary for care. The management of confiscated infants includes medical stabilization and social adjustment, quarantine, and eventual integrations to learn basic social and motor skills with conspecifics. The care of infants in a sanctuary setting also raises the importance of maintaining proper ethics and animal welfare, described by the five freedoms of animal welfare and how sanctuaries can abide by these guidelines while providing the proper care and enrichment for the infants.
Title: What next for Valentine - Euthanasia, Hard Release, or Life in Captivity?
Authors: Janeserah Mukundi, Colobus
Abstract: This case study follows a vervet monkey who was confined to a small cage following the death or her mother, without adequate room for growth, exploration, and essential motor function. Upon release into an enclosure at the sanctuary, Valentine showed inept foraging skills that led to starvation and the removal from the enclosure and back into rehabilitation. This case presents the dilemma of what step to take next - euthanasia, hard release, or a life in captivity - due to the institutionalization the animal experienced as an infant and what would be best according to animal welfare guidelines.
Title: The management of aggression between wild and captive Vervets
Authors: Victoria Curr Smith, Vervet Monkey Foundation
Abstract: The Vervet Monkey Foundation in South Africa holds a captive Vervet monkey population that is now facing aggression and other negative impacts of a wild Vervet monkey population living in close proximity. Specifically, foster orphans in satellite cages at the sanctuary face increasing aggression from the wild population, resulting in significant injuries that require medical attention and intervention from staff at the sanctuary. The presence of these wild monkeys requires new, and often expensive, changes by the staff and management of the sanctuary with varying degrees of success.